portada 22(3)_media

Author /Editor: Garmendia, Joxe Mikel

Year: 2015

Content: Although the level of knowledge of the seagrasses of the Basque Country has increased in recent years (identification of all or almost all existing populations, distribution maps, tendencies, habitats description, affecting human pressures, future scenarios related to climatic change), the reproductive cycle is hardly known: phenology of seed production, seeds viability, dispersion, etc. To cover this gap of knowledge, some field and laboratory experiments were carried out, which have allowed to know the following aspects: (1) the flowers of Zostera noltei occur between June and November (both included); (2) the best months to collect seeds are October and November; (3) the rate of germination of the seeds from Oka and Bidasoa is 74% (s.d. 17.3); (4) 49% (s.d. 4.7) of the seeds germinated in 7 days; and 61% (s.d. 12.6) in 16 days; (5) the seeds sown in the field have produced plants; and (6) no seedling was obtained from seeds in laboratory. The information obtained is the result of exploratory tests and could be serve as guidance in more accurate tests that may run in the future with the objective of evaluation of seed usefulness in restoration works and relevance of sexual reproduction in Zostera noltei populations of the Basque Country

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Revista_Marina_22_1Author: Nere Zorrozua Gamboa, Juan Bald, Guillem Chust, Ibon Galparsoro, Mireia Valle.

Year: 2015

Content: The grooved carpet shell (Ruditapes decussatus) and the common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) are exploited by professional and non-professional fishermen at the Oka estuary (Basque Country, northern Spain). In order to evaluate this exploitation a research on the evolution of both species has been conducted since 1998. Species habitat modeling is a tool increasingly used as a complement to the management of natural resources. In this investigation Generalized Additive Models (GAM) have been applied to estimate the density and biomass for both species in the entire Oka estuary. Predictive models of Ruditapes density and biomass explain 52.4% and 58.5% of variance and have a validation of 37.6% and 34.4%, respectively, while in the case of Cerastoderma predictive models explain 34.2% and 22.1% of variance and have a validation of 197% and 25.1%, for the density and the biomass, respectively. The models can be improved in the future by adding new environmental variables and with a better coverage of biological and physical samples (e.g. sediment data), but even so, the results obtained are consistent with the resource assessment data obtained previously.

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rim21_4Author /Editor: Iratxe Menchaca, Izaskun Zorita, Naiara Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Carlos Erauskin, Ekaitz Erauskin, Pedro Liria, Iñaki Mendibil, Miguel Santesteban, Iker Urtizberea.

Year: 2014

Content: Biofouling formation on submerged structures placed in the marine environment is a worldwide problem. Many of the treatments that are used to combat biofouling provoke adverse effects on marine organisms, and thus, their use is being restricted. In this context, the society is requesting the development of alternative effective and environmental friendly antifouling treatments. The development of new materials in the last years is increasing considerably. The present work shows a guide for biofouling evaluation, from the installation and sampling of the structures in two different scenarios (the Herrera dock and the ocean-meteorological station of Pasaia in the southeastern Bay of Biscay), to the complete process of analysis including microfouling and macrofouling analysis. Different case studies are illustrated in which macrofouling formation is evaluated. This guide intends to be a useful tool that enables the discrimination of the best alternative treatments against biofouling formation.

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rim21_3Author /Editor: Mikel Zubikarai, Ángel Borja and Iñigo Muxika

Year: 2014

Content:

The need to find efficient indices and indicators to assess the status of the marine enviroment and prevent further deterioration of coastal areas is one of the hot topics in today’s marine research. However, a detailed knowledge of benthic communities’ responses to anthropogenic impacts is essential to develop those indices. The studies on the response of benthic communities to sewage pollution and the management measures to remove that pollution on rocky shores are generally based on semiquantitative data and do not take into account both intertidal and subtidal levels. In order to fulfil this gap, the objetives of this study were: (i) to analyse the responses of benthic communities (both fauna and flora) to different phases in the management of wastewater discharges; and (ii) to determine wether if trophic guilds could be an adequate indicator of the changes shown after different management decisions. Hence, fauna and flora data from a quantitative (biomass) monitoring from three areas of the Basque coast were used, with organisms identified to the lowest taxonomic level, with information at intertidal (midlittoral and infralittoral fringes) and subtidal (5, 15 and 25 m) levels. After the different phases on the water treatment management (with or without treatment), investigation results show that the improvement in water quality significantly changed the structure and diversity of intertidal and subtidal assemblages. In fact, those differences were detected by the improvement in some univariate variables mean values, like richness. In turn, significant (p <0.05) differences were also found in fauna and flora biomass between tidal levels, transects, trophic guilds and evolution of the management phases. Moreover it has been found that, changes in trophic guilds and multivariate analyses seem to be an adequate way to monitor benthic hard substratum communities responses to changes in the management of anthropogenic pressures in the Basque coast. Hence, the evaluation of these changes in benthic communities may be useful to inform managers and the society in general about the effectiveness of these indices and indicators.

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rim21_2Author /Editor: Jon Corell and Naiara Rodríguez-Ezpeleta (AZTI-Tecnalia)

Year: 2014

Content: DNA metabarcoding consists on taxonomic assignment of individuals from an environmental sample based on their DNA sequences. In recent years, this technique has enormously evolved due to the increasing effort in surveys and to the advent of new sequencing technologies. The success of the metabarcoding method largely depends on the efficiency of the protocol for extracting DNA from complex samples and on the genetic marker and primer pairs used for taxonomic identification. Here, we have experimentally evaluated alternative protocols for DNA extraction from zooplankton complex samples, and have theoretically tested the suitability of previously published primer pairs for barcoding of zooplankton. The experimental analyses show that the SDS-chloroform method is the most suitable for extracting DNA from mixed zooplankton samples. Additionally, the in silico analyses show that no primer pair is sufficient to amplify one of the most commonly used markers for barcoding, the gene codifying for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), but that there are a set of primers that seem to capture the whole zooplankton diversity based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene. Our results have implications for future zooplankton metabarcoding projects, for which a prior knowledge of the best DNA extraction method and best performing primers is necessary.

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rim21_1Author /Editor: Izaskun Zorita, Nagore Cuevas

Year: 2014

Content: Monitoring the quantification of fish diseases is a well established and widely used tool to assess pollution effects in marine environments. However, there is sparse published information on externally visible diseases and on liver histopathology of common sole (Solea solea), a promising sentinel species in south-western Europe. To address this issue, we report a protocol in which, commonly recorded pathologies in common soles of the Basque coast (south-eastern Europe) are described. This protocol explains in detail the techniques used, from the sample collection to the methodological proposal for the evaluation of liver lesions through a single histopathologic index.

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RIM02: Long-term environmental, climatic and anthropogenic factors affecting subtidal soft-bottom benthic communities, within the Basque coast

Autor / Editor: Maialen Garmendia, Ángel Borja, Iñigo Muxika (AZTI-Tecnalia)

Year: 2008

Content: Las relaciones entre factores ambientales, climáticos y antropogénicos, y las variables estructurales y de distribución de las comunidades bentónicas, fueron estudiadas en la costa vasca (norte de España). La investigación se realizó aplicando análisis univariantes (correlación de Pearson y correlación de rangos de Spearman) y multivariantes (análisis de correspondencias canónicas (CCA) y ordenación de escalado multidimensional (MDS)) a una base de datos de la Red de Calidad de Aguas Litorales de la costa vasca, que se extiende de 1995 a 2006. Se identificó un total de 674 taxones de organismos bentónicos en 19 estaciones de muestreo.

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Revista Marina 20_10Author /Editor: Joxe Mikel Garmendia, Nagore Cuevas, Joana Larreta, Izaskun Zorita and Iñaki Quincoces

Year: 2013

Content: The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (Directive 2008/56/EC), establishes a framework and common objectives for the protection and conservation of the marine environment. This Directive requires the implementation of all measures necessary to achieve the Good Environmental Status by 2020, according to 11 qualitative descriptors: (1) biodiversity, (2) non-native species, (3) commercial species, (4) food webs, (5) eutrophication, (6) seabed integrity, (7) hydrography, (8) pollutants, (9) contaminants in biota, (10) marine litter and (11) energy and noise. With the aim of improving the knowledge of the environmental status of the Basque coast, in relation to the descriptors 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10, a new iteration of the survey Itsasteka 2011 and deployed by AZTI-Tecnalia was carried out, using the Gure Gaskuña vessel. 23 trawls were undertaken and the sampled depth ranged from 25 m to 358 m. The area surveyed with trawls was 6.75 km2. The present work shows the information obtained for descriptors 8 and 10.

Four sentinel species were selected for the assessment of biological effects of contaminants: hake (Merluccius merluccius), small spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula), thickback sole (Microchirus variegatus) and common sole (Solea solea). Contaminant levels in the first three species mentioned follow a different pattern being the hake, in general, the species with the lowest contaminant values. The histopathology study in hake indicates that there are no significant differences among studied zones and, in general, there are no signs of disturbed environmental health. The micronuclei frequency seems to be a promising technique both for the small spotted catshark and for the common sole. However, in this study it is recommended the characterization and set up of the biological effects of contaminants (histopathology and micronuclei frequency in fish) proposed by ICES for the study area of the Bay of Biscay.

With respect to marine litter, in this survey it has been collected an average of 0.068 kg   ha-1 from the marine bottom. The main amount has been found in front of Pasaia and Donostia. In weight, the main litter (63.4%) corresponds to the type “others” (slags, foam mattress, tyre and wood pieces) and plastics (15.1%). In number, this dominance is more distributed between “others” (31.7%) and plastics (29.9%).

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Revista Marina 20_9Author /Editor: Fuensanta Riquelme, Juan Bald, Ibon Galparsoro, Pedro Liria, Iratxe Menchaca y José German Rodríguez

Year: 2013

Content: Over the past few years the gastronomic interest on the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus has increased in the Basque Country; this has resulted in initiatives to exploit this species in the Basque coast. These initiatives sparked the development of an assessment project of the sea urchin biomass, which is being executed by AZTI-Tecnalia since 2007, to the Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture of the Basque Government. Thus, currently information is available on status of sea urchin populations from Ea (Bizkaia) to Hondarribia (Gipuzkoa); density, biomass, size structure, etc. In parallel, it is possible to collect information related to hydrological, geomorphological and biological processes and in the same areas in which it has been the characterization of sea urchin populations. Therefore, the objective of this work was to relate both sources of information, identify those biotic and abiotic variables that could be related and to explain the distribution and structure of sea urchin populations on the Basque coast. The results show a relation of the density, coverage and average size of the sea urchins with the coverage of the algae Gelidium corneum and Corallina elongata, and also with the energy flow of incident wave.

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RIM20_8Author /Editor: Ainhize Uriarte, Joxe Mikel Garmendia, José Germán Rodríguez, Iñigo Muxika, Ángel Borja

Year: 2013

Content: The early response to environmental disturbance and antropogenic pressure by estuarine fishes make them good indicators of changes, especially in regard to water quality. From 2008 to 2010 sampling surveys of demersal assemblages in the Basque estuarieswere carried out three times per year (spring, summer and autumn). The results obtained have allowed to describe the demersal communities (fish and crustaceans) established in these estuaries. In addition, the ecological status of the demersal community was assessed in each estuary, by the AFI index (AZTI’s Fish Index) and the response of the demersal community to human pressures was analyzed. Moreover, a crustacean alien species has been detected and identified.

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