RIM17(7): Un nuevo método para la evaluación de la calidad del fitoplancton, de acuerdo con la Directiva Europea Marco del Agua, en los estuarios del País Vasco (norte de España)

Author / Editor: Marta Revilla, Javier Franco, Maialen Garmendia and Ángel Borja (AZTI-Tecnalia)

Year: 2010

Content: Since 2002, a modified method from Ifremer has been applied to the Basque estuaries for phytoplankton quality assessment, within the context of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). This method has built upon a tool for the Shellfish Waters Directive, presenting some limitations for the WFD; the latter is focused upon ecological quality, with the former on human health. In 2009, during the second phase of the WFD intercalibration, a new method was agreed for transitional waters in northern Spain, between experts from the regional governments of the Asturias, Cantabria and the Basque Country. The present study compares the previously-applied method, with the new method, in the estuaries of the Basque Country. It checks the consistency of both methods with eutrophication risk of these marine systems evaluated by expert judgment and historical data analysis.

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Author / Editor: Eneko Bachiller, Jose Antonio Fernandes (AZTI-Tecnalia)

Year: 2011

Content: Rapid development of semi-automated zooplankton counting and classification methods has carried out new chances when defining objectives for plankton distribution studies. Image analysis allows processing many more samples than under microscope classification with less effort and faster, but with lower taxonomical resolution. Although research in this field has been recently focused in scanning devices, different equipment for image capturing such as photographic cameras can offer alternative utilities. In this manual the whole zooplankton sample processing is explained according to laboratory protocols followed in AZTI-Tecnalia, from sample preparation to automated taxonomic identification using scanner and digital camera for digitizing samples and ZooImage as software. In addition, a new internal control methodology is proposed in order to obtain a reliable quality check of the whole zooplankton identification analysis procedure: if an error occurs in any step of the procedure, this will be reflected on results.

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RIM17(7): Un nuevo método para la evaluación de la calidad del fitoplancton, de acuerdo con la Directiva Europea Marco del Agua, en los estuarios del País Vasco (norte de España)

Author / Editor: Ana Alday, María Santos, Andrés Uriarte, Inmaculada Martín, Udane Martinez and Lorenzo Motos (AZTI-Tecnalia)

Year: 2010

Content: This study proposes a detailed histological key for the examination of the postovulatory follicle’s (POF’s) degeneration for the Bay of Biscay anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus). Such key was established uniquely on the basis of histological features not regarding to the time of capture of the samples. The objective of this procedure is to overcome the difficulties associated to the estimation of the Spawning Frequency on the basis of the determination of POF’s degeneration stages that have been traditionally divided into three great stages corresponding to daily spawning cohorts. The 7 stages presently proposed suppose a better differentiation and resolution of the different phases of POF’s degeneration. This fact allows separating the staging of POF’s from that of ageing. In that way, samples obtained at any time throughout the day can be used and not only those sampled during a discrete period of the day.

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Author / Editor: Iratxe Menchaca, María Jesús Belzunce, Javier Franco, Joxe Mikel Garmendia (AZTI-Tecnalia)

Year: 2011

Content: The reproductive cycle of the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck 1816), was studied on the Basque coast (innermost part of the Bay of Biscay), to establish the temporal availability and the quality of gametes to be used in routine toxicity tests. Samples were collected monthly from January to December 2007, at 2 relatively adjacent locations; these differ in their wave exposure and algal communities. According to one year results, spawning took place at the end of winter. The maturity period was longer and embryogenesis success was higher at the more sheltered site. Factors such as hydrodynamic conditions and food type could explain the observed differences in the reproductive cycles, between the locations. The sheltered site appears to be a suitable locality to sample the sea urchins, necessary for routine bioassays; this is related to the good quality and availability of gametes for almost the whole of the year.

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RIM18(1): Variaciones multidecadales notables en la temperatura atmosférica, temperatura superficial y nivel del mar en el sudeste del golfo de Vizcaya, detectadas mediante filtros “Kolmogorov-Zurbenko” Author / Editor: Manuel González, Almudena Fontán, Ganix Esnaola and Victoriano Valencia (AZTI-Tecnalia)

Year: 2011

Content In this study, a novel approach is used to analyse the long-term variability of air temperature in Igeldo (1928-2009) and Hondarribia (1971-2009), sea surface temperature at the Aquarium of San Sebastián (1947-2009), and sea level datasets from Saint Jean de Luz (1964-1997) and Santander (1943-2004).

This mathematical technique, known as the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko Adaptive filter in honour of the authors, was developed specifically to study long-term trends and to detect abrupt breaks in time-series induced by natural variability or by instrumental systematic errors, regulatory changes, improvement of sanitation systems, the impact of a medicine or the effect of an insecticide, etc.

This paper analyses the changes observed in atmospheric and sea surface temperatures and sea level in the southeastern corner of the Bay of Biscay. Some of the abrupt discontinuities detected in air and sea temperatures and mean sea level time-series may be explained by climatic changes at a global scale (the cold period of the 70’s associated with the Great Saline Anomaly or an increase in atmospheric temperature of about 1.2 ° C during the 80’s)

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pdf Download document: RIM 18_1 (4.05 MB)

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RIM17(5): Protocolo para desarrollar un estudio de impacto ambiental de los convertidores de energía de las olas

Author / Editor: Juan Bald, Andrea del Campo, Javier Franco, Ibon Galparsoro, Manuel González, Pedro Liria, Iñigo Muxika, Anna Rubio, Oihana Solaun, Ainhize Uriarte (AZTI-Tecnalia); María Comesaña, Antón Cacabelos, Rosa Fernández (Centro Tecnológico del Mar); Gonzalo Méndez (Universidad de Vigo); Darío Prada (Universidad de A Coruña); Laura Zubiate (Robotiker-Tecnalia).

Year: 2010

Content: This work provides an early-stage review of likely environmental effects of wave energy to inform project developers, territorial authorities and interested parties. It aims to introduce a first step to developing a risk management framework, which future project developers and territorial authorities can use to predict, prevent and deal with the environmental impacts of the deployment of wave energy converters in Spain.

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RIM17(4): Clasificación de los estuarios del País Vasco como zonas potenciales para la restauración de praderas intermareales de Zostera noltii

Author / Editor: Joxe Mikel Garmendia, J. Germán Rodríguez, Ángel Borja, Javier Franco (AZTI-Tecnalia)

Year: 2010

Content: The drastic reduction of seagrasses observed worldwide, especially in the second half of the 20th Century, together with the high relevance of the ecological functions that they provide in the estuarine and coastal ecosystems, has instigated a high concern among scientists. Thus, it has promoted the execution of many restoration projects of seagrasses during recent years. Transplant of adult plants is one of the different methodologies used for the restoration of intertidal meadows. Using the case of the Basque Country estuaries, a methodology to carry out an appropriate selection of the area to be restored by transplants, is shown. This selection is considered as one of the key points for successfully restoration. Nowadays, Zostera noltii is the unique marine seagrass that grows at the estuaries of the Basque Country, showing intertidal populations in 3 (Oka, Lea and Bidasoa) out of the 12 Basque estuaries. The different environmental variables of the 9 estuaries without Z. noltii, as well as the current ecological status of their water bodies were analyzed and assessed. As result, Butroe estuary is the one that shows the best conditions for a successful transplant of this species, followed by the Oria and Urola estuaries.

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RIM17(3): La Evolución de la Flota de Altura al Fresco en el Contexto del Marco Legislativo Español

Author / Editor: Raúl Prellezo (AZTI-Tecnalia)

Year: 2010

Content: The decline of the off-shore Spanish fleet can be explained in the context of the evolution of the Spanish legislation. Thus, the big restructuration of the fleet occurred when the possibility of receiving structural funds, for scrapping and maintaining the fishing rights simultaneously, was allowed, that is when the separation between rights and vessels occurred. Later, in the period in which transferability of the fishing rights was allowed, the sector adapted the capacity to the fishing rights although the reduction in the number of vessels can be considered as small. Finally, all these changes in the legislation created a drastic change on the regional composition of the fleet.

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Author / Editor: Marta Revilla, Ángel Borja, Almudena Fontán, Javier Franco, Manuel González, Victoriano Valencia (AZTI-Tecnalia)

Year: 2010

Content: The present study analyses the seasonal and interannual variability of the sea surface chlorophyll “a” and temperature, at an offshore station in the southeastern Bay of Biscay.

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Author / Editor: Mireia Valle, Angel Borja, Ibon Galparsoro, Joxe Mikel Garmendia, Guillem Chust (AZTI-Tecnalia)

Year: 2010

Contenido: Zostera noltii seagrass is only present in 3 of the 12 estuaries of the Basque coast. Pollution and human pressures upon these estuarine ecosystems, throughout the last two centuries, could be the reason of its decline. Using the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA), which allows providing habitat suitability models and maps, the main environmental variables explaining the distribution of Z. noltii within the Oka estuary have been determined.

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